The Event Chronicle: Salisbury Nerve Agent Attack Reveals $70 Million Pentagon Program At Porton Down



Salisbury Nerve Agent Attack Reveals $70 Million Pentagon Program At Porton Down
By Editor April 4, 2018
http://www.theeventchronicle.com/study/salisbury-nerve-agent-attack-reveals-70-million-pentagon-program-at-porton-down-2/

Salisbury Nerve Agent Attack Reveals $70 Million Pentagon Program At Porton Down
Signs prohibiting access near to the Porton Down Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, near Salisbury, Britain, March 19, 2018. © Peter Nicholls / Reuters

Dilyana Gaytandzhieva is a Bulgarian investigative journalist and Middle East Correspondent. Over the last two years she has published a series of revealing reports on weapons smuggling. Two months ago South Front published her investigation into the Pentagon bio laboratories in 25 countries across the world. Her current report provides an overview of the Pentagon-funded experiments at the secretive UK military laboratory Porton Down near Salisbury, where an ex-Russian spy and his daughter were allegedly poisoned with a nerve agent. Twitter/@dgaytandzhieva

By Dilyana Gaytandzhieva exclusively for SouthFront

The Pentagon has spent at least $70 million on military experiments involving tests with deadly viruses and chemical agents at Porton Down – the UK military laboratory near the city of Salisbury. The secretive biological and chemical research facility is located just 13 km from where on 4th March former Russian spy Sergei Skripal and his daughter Yulia were found slumped on a bench following an alleged Novichok nerve agent poisoning.



The Porton Down Lab is located just 13 km from the site where Sergei Skripal and his daughter were found and from where they were rushed to hospital.

Information obtained from the US federal contracts registry reveals that the Pentagon’s Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) has funded a number of military projects performed at the UK Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL), or Porton Down, over the last decade. Among them: experimental respiratory infection of non-human primates (marmosets) with Anthrax, Ebola virus, Marburg virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, and Eastern equine encephalitis virus. The US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) has also funded experiments on animals which were exposed to chemical agents such as Sulfur Mustard and Phosgene gas. Phosgene gas was used as a chemical weapon during World War I where it was responsible for about 85 % of the 100,000 deaths caused by chemical weapons.

DTRA has also been granted full access to DSTL scientific and technical capabilities, and test data under a 2011 contract for the collaboration and exchange of scientific and technical capabilities with the UK Ministry of Defence.
At least 122,000 animals used for military chemical and biological experiments at Porton Down

Animal experiments are classified as confidential in the UK. Under section 24 of the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986, it is a criminal offence to disclose certain information about animal experiments in the UK.

Data obtained via the Freedom of Information Act though gives an idea of the dimensions of military chemical and biological experiments carried out at Porton Down. A total of 122,050 animals have been exposed to deadly pathogens, chemicals and incurable diseases over the last decade (2005-2016).


Monkeys being used in warfare agent testing at Porton Down in the past

Animals used include mice, guinea pigs, rats, pigs, ferrets, sheep, and non-human primates. Some of the deadly experiments have been sponsored by the Pentagon under contracts between DSTL and DTRA. Scientists at Porton Down have infected, or poisoned, animals in order to measure time to death and lethal dose of exposure. In practice, the possible use of the researched virus/chemical gas as a weapon.


Marmoset monkeys are experimentally infected at Porton Down with Ebola, Anthrax, Marburg Virus and other deadly pathogens. Scientists measure time to death and lethal dose of exposure to the bio agent. Photo credit: Vic Pigula
Ebola as bioweapon

12 Marmoset monkeys were experimentally infected with the Ebola virus, via aerosol, at Porton Down under a Pentagon-funded project – Experimental respiratory infection of marmosets with Ebola virus Kikwit (the Zaire strain of the Ebola virus which killed more than 245 people in Zaire, now Democratic Republic of Congo, in 1995). The project was part of a $6.3 million DTRA program running at Porton Down from 2012 to 2016 – Development of common marmoset models for category A/B pathogens and product evaluation in marmosets.

Salisbury Nerve Agent Attack Reveals $70 Million Pentagon Program At Porton Down

Source: Experimental Respiratory Infection of Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) With Ebola Virus Kikwit, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 212, 1 October 2015

The experiment’s stated goal was to measure the lethal dose of exposure and time to death meaning that the Ebola virus Kikwit was researched for its potential as a bioweapon. All infected marmoset monkeys died from 6 to 10 days after exposure to the Ebola virus.

The Pentagon also funded studies on the deadly Marburg virus: a $2.6 million project – Experimental respiratory Marburg virus haemorrhagic fever infection in the common marmoset, and another $1.4 million project – Marburg virus model development, which were undertaken at Porton Down in 2017. This virus causes viral hemorrhagic fever and is listed as a Category A Bioterrorism Agent. All infected monkeys died from 8 to 10 days. The aim of the studies was to examine the dose and time to death for animals exposed to aerosolized Marburg virus.


Source: Experimental respiratory Marburg virus haemorrhagic fever infection in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), International Journal of Experimental Pathology

Under another $4.8 million project, funded by DTRA, Porton Down scientists along with the Pentagon contractor Mapp Biopharmaceutical tested Susceptibility and lethality of Western Equine Encephalitis Virus in mice when infected by the aerosol route. Mapp Biopharmaceutical is an American pharmaceutical company, which has developed an Ebola vaccine from the tobacco plant. According to the study, aerosol infection is the likely route of exposure to Western Equine Encephalitis Virus in a biowarfare scenario.

12 Marmoset monkeys were infected with anthrax at Porton Down during an experiment funded by the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The study, Experimental respiratory anthrax infection in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), aimed at determining the lethal dose needed to kill 50% of the animals or the so called LD50 indicator. The value of LD50 for a substance is the dose required to kill half the members of the tested population after a specified test duration. Six of the monkeys died from anthrax from 40 to 140 h.


Source: Experimental respiratory anthrax infection in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), US National Library of medicine
Chemical agent tests

British military scientists were funded by DTRA to perform Chemical Agent system testing as part of a $39.7 million Pentagon program (2012-2017) at Porton Down. Documents prove that the US Department of Defense Agency – DTRA funded animal experiments with chemical agents at the secretive British military lab.

In 2016 Porton Down scientists along with their colleagues from the US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense published the results of a joint study Acute Gene Expression Profile of Lung Tissue Following Sulfur Mustard Inhalation Exposure in Large Anesthetized Swine. According to the funding information, this work was supported by two contracts with the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (US Department of Defense). During the experiment at Porton Down 16 pigs were exposed to mustard gas for about 10 minutes, at 12 h post exposure the animals were killed (three of them died during the experiment due to complications) and a full post-mortem examination performed in order to determine the lung damage caused by the sulfur mustard inhalation.

Sulfur mustard is a chemical warfare agent that was first used on the battlefield in World War I. It has been classified as a Class 1 human carcinogen, meaning that it can also cause cancer. Mustard agents were regulated under the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention as substances with no use other than in chemical warfare.

The last use of Sulfur mustard in battle was confirmed in Syria in 2016. According to the BBC, Islamic State (ISIS) jihadists used mustard gas against government forces in Deir-ez-Zor. The same chemical gas was confirmed to have been used by ISIS against Kurds in Northern Iraq. According to The Independent, the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) confirmed that laboratory tests had come back positive for sulfur mustard, after around 35 Kurdish troops fell sick on the battlefield in August 2015.


Iraqi soldiers captured a cache of chemical weapons from ISIS in Qayarah, Iraq, the rockets tested positive for sulfur mustard, October 2016. (Source: Ed Alexander/BLACKOPS Cyber)

According to information obtained from the US Federal contracts registry, Porton Down scientists 5 months ago completed a $ 2 million military program involving chemical gas experiments on animals. This program was funded by the US Department of the Army on behalf of the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (USAMRICD) and was launched in 2008 and further extended in 2012. The work on the program included Phosgene Gas tests. Amongst them – Continued Model Development to Establish Reproducible Phosgene Injury at 24 Hours. According to the program documents, the purpose was to monitor the development of acute lung injury following phosgene exposure. Phosgene gas was used extensively as a chemical weapon, most notably during World War I.
Coincidence: Guinea pigs at Porton Down and at the home of the poisoned ex-spy

Tests using nerve agents VX and VM on guinea pigs were carried out at Poton Down in 2015. The project was funded by the UK Ministry of Defence. Interestingly, ginea pigs were also found at Sergei Skripal’s home in Salisbury, just a few kilometers away from the secretive chemical and biological military lab. A photo of the Skripals’ pets – a cat and guinea pigs, was posted by his daughter Yulia on Facebook.


Sergei Skripal and his daughter Yulia, photos: Facebook

Guinea pigs were found in the house of the poisoned ex-spy in Salisbury, just a few kilometers away from Porton Down, where such guinea pigs were used for nerve agent chemical tests.

In a 2015 report to the UK parliament the UK Ministry of Defence does confirm the use of animals for military chemical and biological experiments. The ministry states: “DSTL is proud to deliver cutting-edge science and technology for the benefit of national defence and security. Part of its work is to provide safe and effective countermeasures against the threat posed by chemical and biological weapons and to enhance the treatment of conventional casualties on the battlefield, which could not currently be achieved without the use of animals”.
Porton Down scientists test chemical gas on London Tube passengers

Chemical gas was released on thousands of unsuspecting commuters during a military experiment on the London Underground, documents reveal. These chemical tests were performed in 2013 by scientist from Porton Down.


Porton Down scientists released chemical gas on the London Underground in 2013.

The UK government never informed the British public of the military experiment on the London Underground. Thousands of people were exposed to chemical gas without their knowledge. Nor did the Ministry of Defence ask for their consent to participate in such military experiments. Information about the project can be obtained from a 2016 US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) document entitled Environmental Assessment of Proposed NYC Subway Tracer Particle and Gas Releases for the Underground Transport Restoration Project.


5 PFTs, SF6 and Urea were released on the London Underground in 2013 in the form of liquid aerosol droplets. Source: US Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

The document provides information about other programs running in the USA and UK from 2005 to 2016. Among them are the London Underground chemical trials. They were conducted by the Defense Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL), also known as Porton Down.

Information obtained from the UK government contracts registry confirms that Porton Down scientists conducted a study involving access to the London tube under a 3-year contract with the London Underground (2011-2014). The content of the project is not specified though.

According to the contract documents, the London Underground cannot communicate “on these matters with any media representative unless specifically granted permissions to do so. In the event that the Contract becomes classified the Contractor must safeguard information. Before publishing information to the general public, Porton Down may redact any information that would be exempt from disclosure if it was the subject of a request for information under the Freedom of Information Act”.


The London Underground is prohibited from public disclosure of information about the Porton Down project without permission, according to the contract documents. Source: data.gov.uk

The controversial military laboratory was investigated for chemical and biological experiments on humans in the past. Up to 20,000 people took part in various trials from 1949 to 1989. In 2008, the UK Ministry of Defence paid 360 veterans £3 million without admitting liability.


Ronald George Maddison was a twenty-year-old Royal Air Force engineer who died while undergoing tests with sarin at Porton Down in 1953, according to declassified military documents.

Powder dissemination of chemical or biological agents

Presently Porton Down scientists produce and test dissemination of biological and/or chemical agents as they did in the past, documents from the UK government contracts registry reveal. Although the information is redacted, it still raises questions as to why the UK military needs to develop a new technique for dissemination of chemical or biological agents via the inhalational route. A private contractor – Red Scientific Ltd, was awarded a £50,000 contract in 2012 “to explore techniques that could be used to manipulate the flow ability of dry powders, principally to understand the delivery of solid particulate by inhalation, and to apply a variety of innovative powder manipulation techniques to a specific irritant powder (provided by DSTL)”. If the work in 2012/13 proves to be successful there is potential for a second phase to be pursued in 2013/14 examining other powder materials with the same techniques, the contract documents reveal. The project’s stated goal is marked improvement in the efficiency of aerosolisation over current techniques used at DSTL.



DSTL has awarded a private contractor to explore more advanced techniques for powder dissemination of chemical/biological agents. Source: data.gov.uk

DSTL has also tested dissemination techniques in wind tunnels. A private company – NIAB Trading Ltd, was awarded a £12,020 contract to provide facilities and expertise to assist with wind tunnel assessments.

Such experiments involving the release of bacteria were conducted in the UK in the past during the joint UK-US military operation DICE. A declassified US Army document reveals that a series of 24 field trials took place off the coast of Portland and in Lyme Bay in the UK in 1975. Each field trial involved the spraying of massive bacterial aerosols from a converted Land Rover. Although the US and UK joined the UN Conventions on the prohibition of chemical and biological weapons, documents prove that their military programs have never ended.


Porton Down scientists conducted field tests in 1956. The masks on their faces allowed the collection of warfare simulants which had been sprayed from aircraft. Photo credit: Imperial War Museums
US official lied in Brussels about the Pentagon biolaboratories

Robert Kadlec, Assistant Secretary at the US Department of Health, categorically denied the existence of an American bio-weapons program at a seminar on the threat of biological and chemical weapons. The event was organized by the European Parliament on 7th March in Brussels. Asked why the information about the US military bio-laboratories in 25 countries bordering on Russia, China and Iran (the Pentagon’s main rivals) is classified, Kadlec responded: “They are not classified, they are openly available to anyone who wants to look at them.”

(full video of Robert Kadlec’s comment here)


Documents about the Pentagon offshore bio-laboratories prove him wrong though.

According to the 2005 Agreement between the US DoD and the Ministry of Health of Ukraine the Ukrainian government is prohibited from public disclosure of sensitive information about the US program. The Pentagon has been operating 11 biolaboartories in Ukraine.

Porton Down is just one of the Pentagon-funded military laboratories in 25 countries across the world, where the US Army produces and tests man-made viruses, bacteria and toxins in direct violation of the UN convention. These US bio-laboratories are funded by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) under a $ 2.1 billion military program– Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP), and are located in former Soviet Union countries such as Georgia and Ukraine, the Middle East, South East Asia and Africa.

The Pentagon-funded military facilities are not under the direct control of the host state as the US military and civilian personnel is working under diplomatic cover. The local governments are prohibited from public disclosure of sensitive information about the foreign military program running on their own territory. Without being under the direct control of the host state, these Pentagon bio-laboratories put the health of the local population at risk and must be closed.

This article (Salisbury Nerve Agent Attack Reveals $70 Million Pentagon Program At Porton Down) was originally published on South Front and syndicated by The Event Chronicle.

Alerts USA and EbolaReady.com Advises on Preparations


FROM EBOLADREADY.COM

Welcome to EbolaReady.com, the Ultimate Guide to Preparing
for and Surviving an Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreak

Last Update – Oct 18, 2014 – 2:04 PM EST

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and Notification of Resource Additions to This Site

ABOUT EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER

Ebola hemorrhagic fever (recently referred to as Ebola Virus Disease, so just EVD) is one of numerous Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers. It is a severe, often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (such as monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees). Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered (but not confirmed) to be the natural host of the Ebola virus. EVD is caused by infection with a virus of the family Filoviridae, genus Ebolavirus. There are five known species of Ebola virus and one known species of the Marburg virus. The Ebola virus species that is currently the source of the outbreak in West Africa is called Zaire Ebolavirus.

 
ebola graphic
Since the first cases of Ebola HF in the current West Africa outbreak were detected in March, 2014, between 50-90% of those who become infected die. And the deaths are particularly gruesome including bleeding from the eyes, internal bleeding, major organ failure, grotesque rashes and more. Click HERE for a terrifying, detailed description of the physical effects of Ebola.

HOW IS EBOLA TRANSMITTED?
Good Question!
Contact w/Bodily Fluids – Public health authorities such as the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and World Health Organization currently state that Ebola is contracted by coming in contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes in, for example, the eyes, nose, or mouth) with an infected individual’s blood or body fluids, including but not limited to urine, saliva, sweat, feces, vomit, breast milk, semen and fecal material.

Aerosol / Airborne Transmission – Evidence suggests public health officials are intentionally crafting language so as to minimize public concerns regarding other possible means of transmission. For instance, though public health authorities publicly state that Ebola is not AIRBORNE, there are a multitude of published, peer reviewed studies firmly establishing transmission of the Ebola virus, as with many other contagions, via AEROSOLS, such as saliva particles and droplets released via coughs and sneezes.

CDC Cough and Sneeze Plume

The general difference between AIRBORNE and AEROSOL transmission rests, in large part, on the size of the particles and thus, how long they can remain suspended in the air.

sneeze

Until recently both the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and the Public Health Agency of Canada directly warned about possible AIRBORNE transmission of the Ebola virus. Beginning in August 2014 all such references were scrubbed from publicly available agency information resources.

[ EXAMPLE 1: ] – Sometime between August 2-4, 2014 the U.S. Centers for Disease Control CHANGED THE LANGUAGE of their guidance document entitled, Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Hospitalized Patients with Known or Suspected Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever in U.S. Hospitals, to remove any reference to AIRBORNE transmission. Thankfully the WayBack Machine archived the old version.

OLD VERSION https://web.archive.org/web/20140802085653/http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/hcp/infection-prevention-and-control-recommendations.html

NEW VERSION ( Link )
http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/hcp/infection-prevention-and-control-recommendations.html

CDC new

[ EXAMPLE 2: ] – Sometime between Oct 1-2, the Public Health Agency of Canada actually CHANGED THE LANGUAGE of their Pathogen Safety Data Sheet on Ebola to to remove references to AIRBORNE transmission, including the removal of citations to key scientific literature. Thankfully the WayBack Machine archived the old version.

OLD VERSION ( Link )
http://web.archive.org/web/20140803232909/http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/ebola-eng.php

canada old

NEW VERSION ( Link )
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/psds-ftss/ebola-eng.php

canada new

ADDITIONAL REFERENCES ON AIRBORNE / AEROSOL TRANSMISSION

In August, 2014 Dr. Barbara Knust of the CDC revealed in a conference call with clinicians from across the U.S. that there is a risk of Ebola transmission even through “casual contact,” which she defined “to be within three feet of a patient for a prolonged period of time.” [Citation 1]

“But the kind of exposures that we consider to be high risk would be things such as percutaneous or mucous membrane exposure to body fluids of the symptomatic Ebola virus patient, providing direct care of a symptomatic patient or exposure to blood and body fluids without standard bio safety precautions, doing processing of body fluids of confirmed patients without appropriate PPE, or standard bio safety precautions and participation in funeral rites which include direct exposure to human remains in the geographic area where an outbreak is occurring without appropriate PPE.

Low risk exposures [but a risk none the less] include having casual contact with an EVD patient either by being a household member or providing patient care that is just a casual contact kind of a situation rather than direct exposure to blood and body fluid without PPE.

And casual contact we’re defining in here to be within three feet of a patient for a prolonged period of time.”

[emphasis added]

ASK YOURSELF THIS QUESTION: If a CDC scientist states casual contact (within 3 feet) of an infected individual poses a risk of exposure, what does it mean for airline passengers?

In Sept., 2014 the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP) published a position paper urging healthcare workers to employ advanced personal protective equipment because of the threat of aerosol transmission: [Citation 2]

“We believe there is scientific and epidemiologic evidence that Ebola virus has the potential to be transmitted via infectious aerosol particles both near and at a distance from infected patients, which means that healthcare workers should be wearing respirators, not facemasks.”

In 2012 research published in the scientific journal Nature demonstrated the ability of the the virus to pass between pigs and non-human primates without direct contact. [Citation 3]

“In 2009, Reston-EBOV was the first EBOV detected in swine with indicated transmission to humans. In-contact transmission of Zaire-EBOV (ZEBOV) between pigs was demonstrated experimentally. Here we show ZEBOV transmission from pigs to cynomolgus macaques without direct contact. Interestingly, transmission between macaques in similar housing conditions was never observed. Piglets inoculated oro-nasally with ZEBOV were transferred to the room housing macaques in an open inaccessible cage system. All macaques became infected. Infectious virus was detected in oro-nasal swabs of piglets, and in blood, swabs, and tissues of macaques. This is the first report of experimental interspecies virus transmission, with the macaques also used as a human surrogate.”
In 2006 a press release published by the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), specifically states that Ebola is infectious by aerosol: [Citation 4]

“Ebola virus causes hemorrhagic fever with case fatality rates as high as 80 percent in humans. The virus, which is infectious by aerosol (although more commonly spread through blood and bodily fluids of infected patients), is of concern both as a global health threat and a potential agent of biological warfare or terrorism. Currently there are no available vaccines or therapies.”
In 2006 the scientific journal PLoS Pathogens carried a peer reviewed paper stating “…the pathogen is extremely deadly and highly infectious by aerosol…”: [Citation 5]

“Although the worst outbreaks have resulted in only several hundred deaths worldwide [3–6], the filoviruses are considered a significant global health threat, because as the reservoir remains unknown, the pathogen is extremely deadly and highly infectious by aerosol, and there is anecdotal evidence that the use of both MARV and EBOV were explored as potential biowarfare agents in the offensive program of the former Soviet Union [7–10].”
In 2005 guidance published by the U.S. Army on medical management of biological casualities specifically states that Ebola may be particularly prone to transmission via aerosols. [Citation 6]

“Lassa, CCHF, Ebola, and Marburg viruses may be particularly prone to aerosol nosocomial spread. In several instances, secondary infections among contacts and medical personnel without direct body fluid exposure are well documented. These instances suggest a rare phenomenon of aerosol transmission of infection. Therefore, when a VHF is suspected, additional infection control measures are indicated. The patient should be hospitalized in a private room with an adjoining anteroom for putting on and removing protective barriers, storage of supplies, and decontamination of laboratory specimen containers. A negative pressure isolation room with 6-12 air exchanges per hour is ideal for all VHF patients and is strongly advised for patients with significant cough, hemorrhage, or diarrhea. All persons entering the room should wear double gloves, eye protection and HEPA (N-95) masks or positive pressure air-purifying resperators.”

In 1995 research published in the International Journal of Experimental Pathology demonstrated fatal aerosol transmission of Ebola to monkeys with a little as 400 virus particles (plaque-forming units (PFU)). [Citation 7]

“The potential of aerogenic infection by Ebola virus was established by using a head-only exposure aerosol system. Virus-containing droplets of 0.8-1.2 microns were generated and administered into the respiratory tract of rhesus monkeys via inhalation. Inhalation of viral doses as low as 400 plaque-forming units of virus caused a rapidly fatal disease in 4-5 days. … Demonstration of fatal aerosol transmission of this virus in monkeys reinforces the importance of taking appropriate precautions to prevent its potential aerosol transmission to humans.
In 1995 research published in the infectious diseasejournal Lancet demonstrated fatal aerosol transmission of Ebola between rhesus monkeys without any form of physical contact. [Citation 8]

“Secondary transmission of Ebola virus infection in humans is known to be caused by direct contact with infected patients or body fluids. We report transmission of Ebola virus (Zaire strain) to two of three control rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) that did not have direct contact with experimentally inoculated monkeys held in the same room. The two control monkeys died from Ebola virus infections at 10 and 11 days after the last experimentally inoculated monkey had died. The most likely route of infection of the control monkeys was aerosol, oral or conjunctival exposure to virus-laden droplets secreted or excreted from the experimentally inoculated monkeys. These observations suggest approaches to the study of routes of transmission to and among humans.”

SUSTAINED SURFACE CONTAMINATION

Despite public pronouncements by the CDC, WHO and other public health personalities that the Ebola virus does not survive beyond a few HOURS on contaminated surfaces, published research in respected, peer reviewed scientific journals show that “viable” Ebola virus can in fact survive for multiple WEEKS on surfaces outside the body.

In 2010 research published in the Journal of Applied Microbiology demonstrated that two different strains of Ebola, including Ebola-Zaire which is at the heart of the current W. Africa outbreak, is able to survive for extended periods of time at low temperatures on plastic and glass surfaces as well as in liquids. [Citation 9]

“Our study has shown that Lake Victoria marburgvirus (MARV) and Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) can survive for long periods in different liquid media and can also be recovered from plastic and glass surfaces at low temperatures for over … 3 … weeks. The decay rates of ZEBOV and Reston ebolavirus (REBOV) plus MARV within a dynamic aerosol were calculated. ZEBOV and MARV had similar decay rates, whilst REBOV showed significantly better survival within an aerosol.”

IS THERE A VACCINE?
NO. There are experimental drugs under development which have been tested on three individuals infected with Ebola. Two survived. As of the latest update to this site (October 8, 2014) there are no mass produced vaccines. Patients receive symptomatic treatment only.

USGOV AND INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE

On April 8, 2014 the Department of Defense informed Congress that JBAIDS hemorrhagic fever testing systems had been deployed to National Guard units of all 50 States.

On July 31, 2014 the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) issued a Level 3 Travel Warning advising U.S. citizens to avoid nonessential travel to the West African nations of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

On July 31, 2014 President Obama issued a new Executive Order with a revised list of quarantinable communicable diseases to include severe respiratory illnesses.

On Aug 1, 2014 Dr. Margaret Chan, Director-General of the World Health Organization stated the Ebola outbreak “is moving faster than our efforts to control it,” and “If the situation continues to deteriorate, the consequences can be catastrophic in terms of lost lives but also severe socioeconomic disruption and a high risk of spread to other countries.”

On Aug 1, 2014 the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) issued Ebola guidance to US Hospitals on Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Hospitalized Patients.

On Aug 3, 2014 the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) issued Interim Guidance about Ebola Virus Infection for Airline Flight Crews, Cleaning Personnel, and Cargo Personnel

On Aug 6, 2014 it was announced that the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) moved its Emergency Operations Center (EOC) to its highest activation level, an action it last took during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic.

On Aug 7, 2014 Tom Frieden, Director of the US Centers for Disease Control, told Congress that Ebola’s spread to US is ‘inevitable.’

On Aug 15, 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that the scale of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa had been “vastly underestimated” and “extraordinary measures” were needed to contain the disease.

On Aug 26, 2014 the Department of Homeland Security’s Office of the Inspector General issued a report stating that DHS is “ill-prepared” for combating a pandemic such as a global Ebola outbreak.

On Aug 28, 2014 The U.S. State Dept .warned U.S.citizens traveling abroad that they may be subject to increased screening procedures, forced quarantine or berestricted by foreign governments from traveling for up to 21 days in response to the outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease.

On Sept 12, 2014 Dr. Margaret Chan, Director General of the World Health Organization, stated that Ebola virus cases in West Africa are rising faster than the ability to contain them.

On Sept 14, 2014 President Obama described the Ebola outbreak as a national security threat to the United States and has ordered the deployment of 3000 U.S. soldiers to the region to assist in the setting up field hospitals and isolation units, to provide protection for medical staff as well as other tasks in an effort to help in the overall international response.

On Sept 15, 2014 the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) issued a warning to all hospitals, clinics, doctors, infectious disease specialists and other medical professionals nationwide stating that “now is the time to prepare” for the eventual arrival of Ebola cases in the U.S..

On Sept 22, 2014 the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) issued a new report and forecast indicating there is potential for 1.4 MILLION Ebola cases by January 20, 2015.

On Sept 24, 2014 it was reported that U.S. waste management companies are refusing to haul away Ebola-related hospital waste citing federal guidelines that require such materials to be handled in special packaging by people with hazardous materials training.

On Sept 30, 2014 the Centers for Disease Control confirmed the first case of Ebola in a patient diagnosed in a U.S. hospital.

On Oct 2, 2014 the UN’s Ebola Chief Warned the Virus Could Become Airborne.

These and other extraordinary statements, efforts and developments should be YOUR indicators that the W. Africa Ebola outbreak has U.S. and international health authorities particularly worried. They should also serve as indicators that now is the time to make some preparations of your own BEFORE there is a major national rush to do the same.

HOW CAN YOU AND YOUR FAMILY PREPARE?

Button 1
It is imperative that you stay well informed. If the Ebola virus begins to circulate in the U.S. or via airlines serving the U.S. market, you will want to find out at the soonest opportunity so as to begin to manage your risk factors (social contact, travel plans, kids in school, etc…) and take appropriate measures for yourself and family. No doubt the World Health Organization (WHO), the CDC, and other governmental and non-governmental organizations will continue to provide information on the spread of the virus, availability of medications and travel advisories. You can find a list of excellent information sources further down this page.
Button 2
Get your annual flu vaccination as early as possible. Many of the initial symptoms of Ebola are very similar to influenza (fever, nausea, muscle pain, headaches, etc..). While this will NOT protect you from the Ebola virus it will likely help keep you out of the medical system and thus reduce your chances of possibly falling under the purview of newly expanded list of quarantinable diseases which now includes severe acute respiratory syndromes (diseases that are associated with fever and signs and symptoms of pneumonia or other respiratory illness).
Button 3
Get a pneumonia vaccine shot. Here again, while this will NOT protect you from the Ebola virus it will likely help keep you out of the medical system and thus reduce your chances of possibly falling under the purview of newly expanded list of quarantinable diseases which now includes severe acute respiratory syndromes (diseases that are associated with fever and signs and symptoms of pneumonia or other respiratory illness). This is particularly important for individuals 65 and older as well as those with chronic respiratory illnesses such as asthma, emphysema, severe allergies, etc..
Button 4
Become a hand washing fanatic and stop touching your face. This is a powerful habit to get into as a defense against numerous diseases. In the event of an epidemic / pandemic situation, you should wash your hands several times a day with a good antimicrobial scrub. Additionally, it would be wise to carry an alcohol-based disinfectant, though this should not be a substitute for thoroughly washing your hands regularly under running water.
Button 5
It is strongly recommended that airline travelers, including domestic passengers, become hyper sensitive about their proximity to those visibly ill during your trips. Given that hundreds of passengers from affected countries arrive in the U.S. daily from international locations, only to then diffuse into the domestic airline network, your increased, polite vigilance can only be a benefit to your overall safety. If they look sick, steer clear. This is not rude, just simple common sense.
Button 6
In the event of an epidemic / pandemic situation, you would be infinitely wise to exercise social distancing. This might seem like a no-brainer, but the most effective way to prevent becoming infected by most communicable diseases is to avoid exposure to others who may be infected. As an infected individual is already contagious by the time symptoms appear, it is important that you stay aware and informed.
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Familiarize yourself with guidance provided by the CDC and WHO for medical workers and airline staff (a comprehensive list is provided below). Their recommendations on how workers should protect themselves apply equally well for the general population. Though the protective measures in these guidance documents obviously run into the extreme, it should be simple to adjust them to your particular situation. Also be aware that this guidance WILL, FOR SURE, change regularly to accommodate new information and practices..

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In the event of an epidemic / pandemic situation, be prepared to protect your breath with a respirator / mask. As indicated above, there is a body of evidence showing the Ebola virus is capable of airborne transmission via cough and sneeze plumes. As such, it is important to protect yourself from potentially inhaling the virus when in the presence of others. To this end, use only respirators labeled as “NIOSH certified,” “N95”, “N99” or “N100” (See Table Below) as these help protect against inhalation of very small particles. Follow the directions and make sure the masks are worn properly to eliminate entry of unfiltered air between the mask and the sides of the face. Inexpensive sources are provided below.

filter table

CDC / NIOSH Filter Class Table (click for full guidance document)

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In the event of an epidemic / pandemic situation, be prepared to protect your hands. Wear medical grade disposable examination gloves. This will help protect you from possible contact with an infected individual or surfaces. These gloves are cheap enough that you should never have to reuse a pair. Wash your hands after careful removal. Inexpensive sources are provided below.
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In the event of an epidemic / pandemic situation, be prepared to protect your eyes. There are ample scientific studies showing that communicable diseases can be contracted by getting aerosolized particles and droplets in one’s eyes. Glasses are not sufficient protection. A pair of inexpensive chemistry lab goggles provides ample protection. Inexpensive sources are provided below.
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In the event of an epidemic / pandemic situation, be prepared to carefully dispose of any potentially contaminated materials properly. Gloves, masks or filters, tissues, etc.. should becarefully handled. Prepare a special container for such items OUTSIDE of your living environment. Consider them a potential biohazard.

Depending on your location, you may wish to consider your own burn can or burn pit.

REASON: Waste management companies are refusing to haul away the soiled sheets and virus-spattered protective gear associated with treating the disease, citing federal guidelines that require Ebola-related waste to be handled in special packaging by people with hazardous materials training.

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Be mindful of the fact that in the event of an epidemic / pandemic situation, there is the potential for disruption of basic services such as power, telephones, internet access, garbage pickup and more. If the service relies upon a human for upkeep or operation, it is subject to problems due to widespread employee absenteeism or death toll. This concept can also be extended to other areas we take for granted including gas stations, grocery stores, pharmacies, hospitals and more. This is why it is essential to be prepared PRIOR to an emergency taking hold.

SIMPLE EXAMPLE:
In December, 2013, multiple Alaska Airlines flight crews were hit hard by influenza, resulting in flight cancellations.

EXTREME EXAMPLE:
In August 2014, both St. Joseph’s Catholic and John F. Kennedy Memorial hospitals in Liberia shut down after workers at both facilities abandoned their jobs following the deaths of many staff members.

While there is the perception that the American medical system is much better equipped to handle an outbreak, do not be deceived into complacency. Medical staff in America are just as susceptible to the virus as other geographic locations. In the event of an epidemic or pandemic situation, hospitals WILL be overwhelmed.

When medical staff begin becoming infected it is wise to presume that a certain percentage of the staff will NOT report to work. Further, as many nurses and support staff in the U.S. are unionized, there is also a HIGH probability that this will happen sooner rather than later into a public health emergency if the threats are sufficient.

THE SIGNS ARE ALREADY HERE

In September 2014, approximately 1000 unionized nurses protested in the streets of Las Vegas over the fact that U.S. hospitals are not ready to handle a major Ebola outbreak.

In October 2014, America’s largest union and professional association of registered nurses stated that American hospitals are still not communicating policies to health care workers regarding how to handle potential Ebola patients.

According to National Nurses United co-president Deborah Burger:

“As has been shown in Dallas, they are not prepared. […] We’re still not clear on why our hospitals are dragging their feet. […] We think there may be a bit of denial involved in this.”

Additional preparedness steps you should realistically already have completed for other emergency situations:

• Stock up on essential medications (insulin, BP meds, Mom’s Xanax, etc…).

• Stock up on necessities such as food and water. Prepare at least a two month supply. The focus should be on nonperishable foods and meals that do not require cooking.

• Plan for the possibility that banks will be closed or ATMs empty or out of service. As such, if you learn of a potential epidemic or pandemic situation forming, it is wise to keep a supply of cash on hand.

• Discuss emergency preparations with your family. Make a plan so that children will know what to do and where to go if you are incapacitated or killed, or if family members cannot communicate with each other. These are drastic measures, but unfortunately necessary.

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If you think you or a member of your family is becoming ill in a epidemic / pandemic situation, it is important that you NOT IMMEDIATELY RUSH TO THE HOSPITAL. The simple reality is that you will likely encounter desperate throngs of other sick individuals doing the exact same thing. The chances are also very good that hospitals and other medical facilities will already be overwhelmed.

Attempt to call the hospital emergency room BEFORE setting out to find medical attention. FOLLOW THEIR GUIDANCE TO THE LETTER.

BRUTAL REALITIES

IN AN EPIDEMIC / PANDEMIC SITUATION, IF EBOLA IS SUSPECTED IT IS ESSENTIAL YOU NOT HANDLE / TOUCH / KISS / CUDDLE OR OTHERWISE HAVE PHYSICAL CONTACT WITH THE SICK INDIVIDUAL. ADDITIONALLY, IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT THE SICK INDIVIDUAL BE ISOLATED, PREFERABLY OUTSIDE OF YOUR HOME SO THAT NO ONE ELSE IS INFECTED OR THE ENVIRONMENT CONTAMINATED.

For any clear thinking adult, this reason alone should be motivation to follow the preparedness guidance in this document BEFORE a pandemic scenario is upon us. Additionally, if the government is currently allocating significant amounts of capital and other resources to preparing for a possible epidemic / pandemic, this should be your signal to make some preparations of your own.

The lives of yourself and family could hang in the balance.

REGARDING PETS

An infectious disease study published by the Centers for Disease Control in 2005 provides a detailed analysis of an earlier Ebola outbreak during which dogs were tested for the presence of Ebola antibodies (the presence of which would indicate infection by the virus). Ebola virus antibodies WERE detected….

While symptoms DID NOT develop in any of these highly exposed animals during the outbreak, “they may excrete infectious viral particles in urine, feces, and saliva for a short period before virus clearance, as has observed experimentally in other animals. Given the frequency of contact between humans and domestic dogs, canine Ebola infection must be considered as a potential risk factor for human infection and virus spread. Human infection could occur through licking, biting, or grooming. Asymptomatically infected dogs could be a potential source of human Ebola outbreaks and of virus spread during human outbreaks, which could explain some epidemiologically unrelated human cases.”

WHAT DOES THIS MEAN?

Given the result of this study, it is clear that in the event of an epidemic or pandemic situation, dogs may present a significant risk to their owners and others if they become exposed to the virus. Pet owners, and particular, dog owners, must be extremely vigilant. Keep an eye on your dogs when outside. Limit their movement where appropriate. Contact with a sick individual could result in the spread of the virus in your home.

Similarly, if someone in your home becomes sick, this CDC report clearly shows that dogs could spread the virus to other family members, while not becoming sick themselves…

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPTMENT (PPE) USE VIDEOS
While these videos do not specifically deal with use of PPEs in an infectious Ebola setting, they
do provide an excellent overview of the general use of these items.

PREPAREDNESS RESOURCES
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AlertsUSA.com

KNOW WHEN EBOLA IS DETECTED IN
YOUR SCHOOL DISTRICT

AlertsUSA provides instannt mobile notfication of SHTF incidents and developments.

* Be One Of The First To Know When The SHTF.
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AFFORDABLE PANDEMIC PREPAREDNESS SUPPLIES

amazon prime logo
Amazon Prime Logo
Amazon Prime Membership $75 / Year
Though you do not need to be a member to order, everything on this page comes from supplier listings on Amazon.com. Amazon has a subscription service known as Prim which, amongst other benefits, entitles you to COMPLETELY FREE 2 Day shipping on all orders. NOT one penny for ANY shipping on ANYTHING Amazon Prime. Plus you get free movies, free TV shows (like a Netflix thing) and much more. Instead of burning diesel fuel to go to Wal-Mart to buy dog and cat food, I have Amazon send it to me with free 2 day shipping. It saves me time and fuel and money, and the pet food is cheaper than it is at Wal-Mart. I am a very big fan and user of Amazon prime. OH…and you get a 1 month FREE Trial of it to see if you like it………..hint hint.

hibiclens
Hibiclens Medical Grade Skin Cleanser for killng the H7N9 virus.
Chlorhexidine Gluconate Medical Grade Skin Cleanser
One of the best risk mitigation steps you can take is to acquire a medical grade skin cleanser, as well as surface cleanser.

Of these, one of the gold standards in hospitals and other clinical settings is Chlorhexidine Gluconate, which is sold under the product name HIBICLENS.

The product is intended for use as a surgical scrub, as a health-care personnel hand wash, a patient pre-operative skin preparation and a skin wound cleanser. The antimicrobial cleaner bonds to the skin to create a persistent antimicrobial effect and protective germ-killing field against a wide range of microorganisms.

sporicidin
Sporicidin® Disinfectant Solution
Another essential risk mitigation step is to acquire a hospital-grade disinfectant.

Of these, the application leader in hospitals and clinical settings is Sporicidin® Disinfectant Solution.

Sporicidin® is an EPA-registered gold-standard disinfectant for a varity of surfaces which provides continuous residual antimicrobial activity for up to 6 months. The solution is non-corrosive to surfaces including plastics, latex, vinyl, glass, wood, metal, and porcelain. Sporicidin® Disinfectant Solution is FDA 510(k) cleared for hospital use and compliant with OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standards (29 CFR 1910.1030). Sporicidin® has been used in hospital, medical and dental environments since 1978 and provides 100% kill of disease and odor-causing organisms. STRONGLY RECOMMENDED.

masks n95
N95 masks for protection from airborne bird flu infection.
NIOSH-Approved N95 Particulate Mask / Respirators
An ESSENTIAL risk countermeasure for reducing the spread of Ebola, influenza and other contagions, not only for caregivers, but also for the sick, is to acquire a supply of particle masks. The N95 respirator is the most common particulate filtering face piece respirator and will be impossible to find during an epidemic / pandemic situation.

This product filters at least 95% of airborne particles but is NOT resistant to oil. These are (currently) inexpensive and a critical element to one’s preparedness supplies. There are an abundance of scholarly studies demonstrating the effectiveness of N95 filters in reducing the spread of viruses.

P100 masks and respirators for protection from airborne bird flu infection.
NIOSH-Approved P100 Particulate Mask / Respirators
Similar to the N95, P100 rated filters provide 99.97% filter efficiency against viruses of all types, including Ebola, influenza and other contagions, as well as certain dusts, fumes, mists and radionuclides. P100 are also oil resistant. The masks are well suited for those who want NIOSHs highest rated filtration efficiency. Here again, these masks are (currently) inexpensive and a critical element to one’s pandemic preparedness supplies.

Lab safety goggles for protecting your eyes from transocular bird flu infection by airborne viruses.
eyeprotection
Lab Safety Goggles – Various Styles and Designs Available
Transocular (via the eye) infection is well researched and documented. All it takes is a cough or sneeze…. Consider eye protection another essential pandemic mitigation measure. These inexpensive goggles are used worldwide by health authorities and should be part of your preparedness supplies.The style or design is irrelevant. Shielding the eyes from the free movement of air is the primary consideration.

Latex gloves are essential for protection from H7N9 infections from touching contaminated surfaces, people, etc..

Gloves – Single-Use Latex Examination Gloves
As viruses can easily be spread via your hands, not to mention one of the primary avenues through which YOU become infected….. surgical gloves are a no-brainer. Additionally, the length of time that germs can survive on latex gloves varies and is dependent on a number of factors such as humidity level, temperature, type of surface and germs. The only logical solution is disposable gloves. Those offered via this link are inexpensive and can, in and of themselves, be a lifesaver.

Full-faced respirator masks provide the ultimate protection from airborne H7N9 virus.
Reusable Full-Faced Respirator Masks
fullfacemasks
These masks provide the ultimate in protection and can be used with either N95 or P100 filters. The most important feature of such masks is the near complete isolation of the eyes, nose and mouth. Eyes are protected from airborne particles and everything you breath is run through the disposable filters.

While this type of mask could be viewed as extreme, ask yourself the following question: If a member of your family becomes ill in an epidemic / pandemic situation involving a potentially deadly pathogen, are you confident enough to engage in their care without maximum protection for yourself?

DuPont Tyvek coveralls provide outstanding protection when used in the presence of infected individuals and surfaces.
DuPont Tyvek Coveralls – Multiple Sizes and Styles
DuPont Tyvek coveralls are made of flash-spun, high-density polyethylene which creates a unique, nonwoven material that can’t be abraded or worn away. The coveralls provide light-weight inherent barrier protection against hazardous dry particles and aerosols. If there is a possibility of working directly with sick individuals during a epidemic / pandemic type of situation, these inexpensive coveralls would be an excellent addition to your preps.

Tychem® QC Chemical Protection Coveralls
DuPont™ Tychem® C remains the best-in-class protective suit when handling biological and infective agents such as micro-organisms, bacteria, virus and fungi, as it meets the EN 14126 in the highest performance class. Alternatively, a hooded Tyvek® garment with taped seams, used in conjunction with Tychem® C accessories for enhanced protection of areas most exposed to potentially contaminated blood, sweat, and body fluids may be considered.
For more information, see this Ebola Protective Clothing PDF from DuPont

HEPA air filters remove 99.97% of particles passing through with a size of 0.3 micrometers or larger.
HEPA Air Filters – Multiple Sizes and Styles
High-efficiency particulate air, or HEPA, is a type of air filter. To qualify as HEPA by USGOV standards, an air filter must remove (from the air that passes through) 99.97% of particles that have a size of 0.3 micrometers.HEPA filters are critical in the prevention of the spread of airborne bacterial and viral organisms and, therefore, infection. Typically, medical-use HEPA filtration systems also incorporate ultra-violet lights to kill off the live bacteria and viruses trapped by the filter media. Some of the best-rated HEPA units have an efficiency rating of 99.995%, which assures a very high level of protection against airborne disease transmission.

Immune Boost Immune Boosting EpiCor
Medical experts agree, a healthy immune system could help one to avoid or survive viruses, even Ebola. No guarantee, of course, and while many products might help, one with exceptionally good science behind it and without any cytokine storm risk, is EpiCor. Check out the Customer Reviews there at Amazon, too!

INFORMATION RESOURCES

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CDC GUIDANCE DOCUMENTS
CDC Main Ebola Page

Ebola – Case Definition

Ebola – Disease Information for Clinicians in U.S. Healthcare Settings

Ebola – Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Hospitalized Patients

Ebola – Guidance for Environmental Infection Control in Hospitals

Ebola – Safe Management of Patients with Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in U.S. Hospitals

Ebola – Guidance for Monitoring and Movement of Persons w/ Ebola Virus Disease Exposure

Ebola – Guidance Handling of Human Remains of Ebola Patients (Hospitals and Mortuaries)

Ebola – Guidance for EMS Systems and 9-1-1 Public Safety Answering Points

Ebola – Contact Tracing Primer

Ebola – Guidance for Airlines

Ebola – Guidance for Air Medical Transport for Patients with Ebola Virus Disease

Ebola – Guidance for Specimen Collection, Transport, Testing, and Submission

Ebola – Advice for Colleges, Universities, and Students

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION

Ebola – Advice for Colleges, Universities, and Students

Ebola – Case Definitions of Ebola and Marburg Virus Diseases

Ebola – Clinical Management of Patients w/ Viral Hemorrhagic Fever

Ebola – Contact Tracing During an Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease

Ebola – Laboratory Guidance for the Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease

Ebola – Surveillance in Countries w/ No Reported Cases of Ebola Virus Disease

Ebola – Ebola Event Management at Points of Entry

Ebola – Infection Prevention and Control Guidance Summary

Ebola – Toolkit for Behavioral and Social Communication in Outbreak Response

Ebola – Ebola and Marburg Virus Disease Epidemics: Preparedness, Alert, Control, and Evaluation

Ebola – WHO Risk Assessment: Human Infections w/ Zaïre Ebola Virus in West Africa

KNOW THE LAW

Ebola – Advice for Colleges, Universities, and Students
CDC – Legal Authorities for Isolation and Quarantine

CDC – Specific Laws and Regs Governing the Control of Communicable Diseases

CDC – Final Rules for Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate and Foreign

Executive Order (July 31, 2014) — Revised List of Quarantinable Communicable Diseases

FDA Drug Shortage Information

TRANSMISSABILITY CITATIONS

[ 1 ] Knust, B., Kuhar, D., Brown, L., What U.S. Hospitals Need to Know to Prepare for Ebola Virus Disease, [Transcript: CDC Conference Call with Clinicians], August 5, 2014 2:00 pm ET.

[ 2 ] Brosseau, L., Jones, R., Health workers need optimal respiratory protection for Ebola, Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP), Sep 17, 2014. .

[ 3 ] Hana M. Weingartl, H., Embury-Hyatt, C., Nfon, C., Leung, A., Smith, G., Kobinger, G., Transmission of Ebola virus from pigs to non-human primates, Nature – Scientific Reports, Article No.: 811, doi:10.1038/srep00811, Received: 25 April 2012, Accepted: 28 Sept 2012, Pub: 15 Nov 2012.

[ 4 ] The U.S. Army Medical Research Inst. of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), (January 13, 2006). Gene-Specific Ebola Therapies Protect Nonhuman Primates from Lethal Disease [Press Release]. Retrieved from < http://www.usamriid.army.mil >

[ 5 ] Warfield, K., Swenson, D., Olinger, G., Nichols, D., Pratt W., Blouch, R., Stein, D., Aman, J., Iversen, P., Bavari, S., Gene-specific countermeasures against Ebola virus based on antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers, PLoS Pathogens, Jan. 13, 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0020001.

[ 6 ] U.S. Army, Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), 6th Edition, 2005.

[ 7 ] Johnson E, Jaax N, White J, Jahrling P., Lethal experimental infections of rhesus monkeys by aerosolized Ebola virus., Int’l Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology, 1995 Aug;76(4):227-36.

[ 8 ] Jaax N, Jahrling P, Geisbert T, Geisbert J, Steele K, McKee K, Nagley D, Johnson E, Jaax G, Peters C., Transmission of Ebola virus (Zaire strain) to uninfected control monkeys in a biocontainment laboratory, Lancet. 1995 Dec 23-30;346(8991-8992):1669-71.

[ 9 ] Piercy TJ, Smither SJ, Steward JA, Eastaugh L, Lever MS., The survival of filoviruses in liquids, on solid substrates and in a dynamic aerosol, Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2010 Nov;109(5):1531-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04778.x. Epub 2010 Jun 10.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR OF THIS PAGE

Steve Aukstakalnis (Awk-sta-call-niss) is President of AlertsUSA Inc, a risk management firm providing one of the nation’s most widely used national security threat, warning and incident notification services for mobile devices.

Educated in Physics and CS, Steve is a former research scientist and Program Director for the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Computational Field Simulation. He has served on the professional research staff at the University of Washington and the faculty of Mississippi State University.

Steve is an invited lecturer, instructor and researcher for such organizations as the Dept. of Defense, U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, University of Michigan, Pepperdine University, Purdue, Dartmouth, Nat’l Taiwan University, the Smithsonian Institution and a host of other universities, corporations and government agencies across N. America and around the world.

Steve has authored two books as well as dozens of papers, magazine articles and technology reviews. His written work has served as background information and prep material for U.S. Senate hearings and is listed in the Congressional Record. Steve is currently under contract with Pearson – Addison Wesley for his third book slated for publication in 2015-16.

Steve has extensive international travel experience and has lived abroad in both SE Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. He spent a good portion of 2010-11 living and working out of a mud hut deep in the bush approx. 70 miles NNE of Monrovia, Liberia.

Steve has significant broadcast media experience and has appeared as a guest on radio and TV shows around the world, including The Larry King Show, Next Step, PBS, NPR, BBC, as well as most major news networks incl CNNABCNBCCBS.

Steve is available for media interviews and commentary on the topic of risk management and family preparedness in relation to the current Ebola outbreak. His extensive firsthand experience living and working in West Africa provides considerable depth and insight on origins of the outbreak and the unique cultural, environmental and topographic challenges faced by health authorities attempting to bring the situation under control. He can be contacted via inquiry@alertsusa.com

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