Lack of an association or an inverse association between low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and mortality in the elderly. In fact, “high LDL-C may be protective is in accordance with the finding that LDL-C is lower than normal in patients with acute myocardial infarction”.



Cardiovascular medicine
Research
Lack of an association or an inverse association between low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and mortality in the elderly: a systematic review
http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/6/6/e010401.full?sid=cfb00014-f0a8-407d-ae71-a3278160ca49

Uffe Ravnskov1, David M Diamond2, Rokura Hama3, Tomohito Hamazaki4, Björn Hammarskjöld5, Niamh Hynes6, Malcolm Kendrick7, Peter H Langsjoen8, Aseem Malhotra9, Luca Mascitelli10, Kilmer S McCully11, Yoichi Ogushi12, Harumi Okuyama13, Paul J Rosch14, Tore Schersten15, Sherif Sultan6, Ralf Sundberg16
Author affiliations
Abstract

Objective It is well known that total cholesterol becomes less of a risk factor or not at all for all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality with increasing age, but as little is known as to whether low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), one component of total cholesterol, is associated with mortality in the elderly, we decided to investigate this issue.

Setting, participants and outcome measures We sought PubMed for cohort studies, where LDL-C had been investigated as a risk factor for all-cause and/or CV mortality in individuals ≥60 years from the general population.

Results We identified 19 cohort studies including 30 cohorts with a total of 68 094 elderly people, where all-cause mortality was recorded in 28 cohorts and CV mortality in 9 cohorts. Inverse association between all-cause mortality and LDL-C was seen in 16 cohorts (in 14 with statistical significance) representing 92% of the number of participants, where this association was recorded. In the rest, no association was found. In two cohorts, CV mortality was highest in the lowest LDL-C quartile and with statistical significance; in seven cohorts, no association was found.

Conclusions High LDL-C is inversely associated with mortality in most people over 60 years. This finding is inconsistent with the cholesterol hypothesis (ie, that cholesterol, particularly LDL-C, is inherently atherogenic). Since elderly people with high LDL-C live as long or longer than those with low LDL-C, our analysis provides reason to question the validity of the cholesterol hypothesis. Moreover, our study provides the rationale for a re-evaluation of guidelines recommending pharmacological reduction of LDL-C in the elderly as a component of cardiovascular disease prevention strategies.

This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010401
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Strengths and limitations of this study

This is the first systematic review of cohort studies where low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been analysed as a risk factor for all-cause and/or cardiovascular mortality in elderly people.

Lack of an association or an inverse association between LDL-C and mortality was present in all studies.

We may not have included studies where an evaluation of LDL-C as a risk factor for mortality was performed but where it was not mentioned in the title or in the abstract.

We may have overlooked relevant studies because we have only searched PubMed.

Minor errors may be present because some of the authors may not have adjusted LDL-C by appropriate risk factors.

Some of the participants with high LDL-C may have started statin treatment during the observation period and, in this way, may have added a longer life to the group with high LDL-C and some of them may have started with a diet able to influence the risk of mortality.

We may have overlooked a small number of relevant studies because we only searched papers in English.

Introduction
Rationale

For decades, the mainstream view has been that an elevated level of total cholesterol (TC) is a primary cause of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). There are several contradictions to this view, however. No study of unselected people has found an association between TC and degree of atherosclerosis.1 Moreover, in most of the Japanese epidemiological studies, high TC is not a risk factor for stroke, and further, there is an inverse association between TC and all-cause mortality, irrespective of age and sex.2

In a recent meta-analysis performed by the Prospective Studies Collaboration, there was an association between TC and CV mortality in all ages and in both sexes.3 However, even in this analysis, the risk decreased with increasing age and became minimal after the age of 80 years. Since atherosclerosis and CVD are mainly diseases of the elderly, the cholesterol hypothesis predicts that the association between CV mortality and TC should be at least as strong in the elderly as in young people. There may be a confounding influence in these studies, however, because TC includes high-density lipoprotein cholestrol (HDL-C), and multiple studies have shown that a high level of HDL-C is associated with a lower risk of CVD.
Objectives

We examined the literature assessing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as a risk factor for mortality in elderly people. Since the definition of CVD varies considerably in the scientific literature, we have chosen to focus on the association between LDL-C and all-cause and CVD mortality, because mortality has the least risk of bias among all outcome measures. If Goldstein and Brown’s recent statement that LDL-C is ‘the essential causative agent’ of CVD4 is correct, then we should find that LDL-C is a strong risk factor for mortality in elderly people.


Methods
Search strategy

UR and RS searched PubMed independently from initial to 17 December 2015. The following keywords were used: ‘lipoprotein AND (old OR elderly) AND mortality NOT animal NOT trial’. We also retrieved the references in the publications so as not to miss any relevant studies. The search was limited to studies in English.
Inclusion and exclusion criteria

All included studies should meet the following criteria: the study should be a cohort study of people aged 60 years or older selected randomly from the general population, or a study where the authors had found no significant differences between the participants and the source population’s demographic characteristics. The studies should include an initial assessment of LDL-C levels, the length of the observation time and information about all-cause and/or cardiovascular mortality at the end of follow-up. The studies should also include information about the association between LDL-C and all-cause and/or CVD mortality. We excluded studies that did not represent the general population (eg, case–control studies; case reports; studies that included patients only); studies where data about elderly people were not given separately, and studies without multivariate correction for the association between LDL-C and all-cause and/or CV mortality. We accepted studies where the authors had excluded patients with serious diseases or individuals who had died during the first year.
Study selection, data items and extraction

Studies where the title or abstract indicated that they might include LDL-C data of elderly people, were read in full, and the relevant data were extracted by at least three of the authors, for example, year of publication, total number of participants, sex, length of observation time, exclusion criteria, LDL-C measured at the start and the association between initial LDL-C and risk of all-cause and/or at follow-up. When more than one adjusted HR was reported, the HR with the most fully adjusted model was selected.

Quality assessment

The design of the study satisfies almost all points of reliability and validity according to the Newcastle Ottawa Scale as regards selection, comparability and exposure.5 Thus, all studies represented elderly people only; ascertainness of exposure (eg, measurement of LDL-C) was present in all studies, and outcome was unknown at the start. It can be questioned if all of the studies represented the general population because, as shown below, in some of them various types of disease groups were excluded.

Results
Study selection

Our search gave 2894 hits. We excluded 160 studies, which were not in English, and 2452 studies because, judged from the abstract, it was obvious that they were irrelevant.

The rest of the papers were read in full; 263 of these studies were excluded for the following reasons: (1) the participants did not represent the general population; (2) LDL-C was not measured at the start; (3) follow-up information was not given for the elderly separately; or (4) no information was present about mortality during the observation period (figure 1). One of the studies6 was excluded because it included the same individuals as in a previous study.7
Figure 1

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Figure 1

Flow Chart. CV, cardiovascular; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Study characteristics

The remaining 19 studies including 30 cohorts with a total of 68 094 participants met the inclusion criteria (figure 1). All-cause mortality was recorded in 28 cohorts. In 16 of these cohorts (representing 92% of the individuals), the association was inverse and with statistical significance in 14; in 1 of the cohorts, the association was mirror-J-formed with the lowest risk in the highest quartile; in the rest of the papers, no association was found. CV mortality was recorded in nine cohorts; in one of them, the association was almost U-shaped with the lowest risk in the highest quartile (curvilinear fit: p=0.001); in one of them, the association was mirror-J-formed and also with the lowest risk in the highest quartile (curvilinear fit: p=0.03); in the other seven cohorts, no association was found (table 1).

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Table 1

Association between LDL-C and all-cause mortality and CVD mortality, respectively, in 19 studies including 30 cohorts with 68 094 individuals from the general population above the age of 60 years
Risk of bias across studies

One explanation for the increased risk of mortality among people with low cholesterol is that serious diseases may lower cholesterol soon before death occurs. Evidence to support this hypothesis may be obtained from 10 of the studies in which no exclusions were made for individuals with terminal illnesses. However, in four of the studies, participants with a terminal illness or who had died during the first observation year were excluded. In one of those studies,8 LDL-C was not associated with all-cause mortality; in the three others,16 ,20 ,24 which included more than 70% of the total number of participants in our review, LDL-C was inversely associated with all-cause mortality and with statistical significance. Thus, there is little support for the hypothesis that our analysis is biased by end of life changes in LDL-C levels.

It is also potentially relevant that all studies did not correct for the same risk factors, and some of them did not inform the reader about which risk factors they corrected for. However, taking all studies together, 50 different risk factors were corrected for in the Cox analyses (table 2).

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Table 2

Factors corrected for in the multifactorial analyses of each study

It is worth considering that some of the participants with high LDL-C may have started statin treatment during the observation period. Such treatment may have increased the lifespan for the group with high LDL-C. However, any beneficial effects of statins on mortality would have been minimal because most statin trials have had little effect on CVD and all-cause mortality, with a maximum reduction of mortality of two percentage points. It is therefore relevant that the 4-year mortality among those with the highest LDL-C in the included cohorts was up to 36% lower than among those with the lowest LDL-C. Furthermore, in the largest study20 that included about two-thirds of the total number of participants in our study, the risk was lower among those with the highest LDL-C than among those on statin treatment.

It is also possible that those with the highest LDL-C were put on a different diet than those with low LDL-C. However, this potential bias in mortality outcomes could have gone in both directions. Some of the individuals with high LDL-C may have followed the official dietary guidelines and exchanged saturated fat with vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid. In a recent study, the authors reported that among participants who were older than 65 at baseline, a 30 mg/dL decrease in serum cholesterol was associated with a higher risk of death (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.54).26 If applied to the general population, this finding suggests that the conventional dietary treatment for high cholesterol with vegetable oil replacing saturated fat may actually increase mortality in those individuals with high LDL-C. Thus, the lack of an association between LDL-C and mortality may have been even stronger than reported since the dietary intervention may have been counterproductive.

Finally, it is potentially relevant that we limited our literature search to PubMed. In preliminary searches with PubMed, OVID and EMBASE, we identified 17 relevant studies in PubMed, but only 2 in OVID and EMBASE, and these 2 studies were found in PubMed as well. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that there are studies with findings with divergent results from those we have reported here, as all of them reported either no association or an inverse association between LDL-C and mortality.
Discussion

Assessments of the association between serum cholesterol and mortality have been studied for decades, and extensive research has shown a weak association between total cholesterol and mortality in the elderly; several studies have even shown an inverse association. It is therefore surprising that there is an absence of a review of the literature on mortality and levels of LDL-C, which is routinely referred to as a causal agent in producing CVD4 and is a target of pharmacological treatment of CVD.

Our literature review has revealed either a lack of an association or an inverse association between LDL-C and mortality among people older than 60 years. In almost 80% of the total number of individuals, LDL-C was inversely associated with all-cause mortality and with statistical significance.

These findings provide a paradoxical contradiction to the cholesterol hypothesis. As atherosclerosis starts mainly in middle-aged people and becomes more pronounced with increasing age, the cholesterol hypothesis would predict that there should be a cumulative atherosclerotic burden, which would be expressed as greater CVD and all-cause mortality, in elderly people with high LDL-C levels.

Our results raise several relevant questions for future research. Why is high TC a risk factor for CVD in the young and middle-aged, but not in elderly people? Why does a subset of elderly people with high LDL-C live longer than people with low LDL-C? If high LDL-C is potentially beneficial for the elderly, then why does cholesterol-lowering treatment lower the risk of cardiovascular mortality? In the following we have tried to address some of these questions.
Inverse causation

A common argument to explain why low lipid values are associated with an increased mortality is inverse causation, meaning that serious diseases cause low cholesterol. However, this is not a likely explanation, because in five of the studies in table 1 terminal disease and mortality during the first years of observation were excluded. In spite of that, three of them showed that the highest mortality was seen among those with the lowest initial LDL-C with statistical significance.18 ,20 ,24
Is high LDL-C beneficial?

One hypothesis to address the inverse association between LDL-C and mortality is that low LDL-C increases susceptibility to fatal diseases. Support for this hypothesis is provided by animal and laboratory experiments from more than a dozen research groups which have shown that LDL binds to and inactivates a broad range of microorganisms and their toxic products.27 Diseases caused or aggravated by microorganisms may therefore occur more often in people with low cholesterol, as observed in many studies.28 In a meta-analysis of 19 cohort studies, for instance, performed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and including 68 406 deaths, TC was inversely associated with mortality from respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, most of which are of an infectious origin.29 It is unlikely that these diseases caused the low TC, because the associations remained after the exclusion of deaths occurring during the first 5 years. In a study by Iribarren et al, more than 100 000 healthy individuals were followed for 15 years. At follow-up, those whose initial cholesterol level was lowest at the start had been hospitalised significantly more often because of an infectious disease that occurred later during the 15-year follow-up period.30 This study provides strong evidence that low cholesterol, recorded at a time when these people were healthy, could not have been caused by a disease they had not yet encountered.

Another explanation for an inverse association between LDL-C and mortality is that high cholesterol, and therefore high LDL-C, may protect against cancer. The reason may be that many cancer types are caused by viruses.31 Nine cohort studies including more than 140 000 individuals followed for 10–30 years have found an inverse association between cancer and TC measured at the start of the study, even after excluding deaths that occurred during the first 4 years.32 Furthermore, cholesterol-lowering experiments on rodents have resulted in cancer,33 and in several case–control studies of patients with cancer and controls matched for age and sex, significantly more patients with cancer have been on cholesterol-lowering treatment.32 In agreement with these findings, cancer mortality is significantly lower in individuals with familial hypercholesterolaemia.34

That high LDL-C may be protective is in accordance with the finding that LDL-C is lower than normal in patients with acute myocardial infarction. This has been documented repeatedly without a reasonable explanation.35–37 In one of the studies,37 the authors concluded that LDL-C evidently should be lowered even more, but at a follow-up 3 years later mortality was twice as high among those whose LDL-C had been lowered the most compared with those whose cholesterol was unchanged or lowered only a little. If high LDL-C were the cause, the effect should have been the opposite.
Conclusions

Our review provides the first comprehensive analysis of the literature about the association between LDL-C and mortality in the elderly. Since the main goal of prevention of disease is prolongation of life, all-cause mortality is the most important outcome, and is also the most easily defined outcome and least subject to bias. The cholesterol hypothesis predicts that LDL-C will be associated with increased all-cause and CV mortality. Our review has shown either a lack of an association or an inverse association between LDL-C and both all-cause and CV mortality. The cholesterol hypothesis seems to be in conflict with most of Bradford Hill’s criteria for causation, because of its lack of consistency, biological gradient and coherence. Our review provides the basis for more research about the cause of atherosclerosis and CVD and also for a re-evaluation of the guidelines for cardiovascular prevention, in particular because the benefits from statin treatment have been exaggerated.38–40
Acknowledgments

The study has been supported by a grant from Western Vascular Institute.
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The Event Chronicle: 82-Year-Old Woman With Dementia Gets Her Memory Back



82-Year-Old Woman With Dementia Gets Her Memory Back After Changing Her Diet
By Editor May 2, 2018 No Comments

http://www.theeventchronicle.com/health/82-year-old-woman-with-dementia-gets-her-memory-back-after-changing-her-diet-2/

82-Year-Old Woman With Dementia Gets Her Memory Back After Changing Her Diet

By Alanna Ketler

Recently, an 82-year-old woman who suffered from dementia, who couldn’t recognize her own son has miraculously got her memory back after changing her diet.

When his mother’s condition became so severe that for her own safety she had to be kept in the hospital, Mark Hatzer almost came to terms with losing another parent.

Sylvia had lost her memory and parts of her mind, she had even phoned the police once accusing the nurse who were caring for her of kidnap.

A change in diet, which was comprised of high amounts of blueberries and walnuts, has proven to have had a strong impact on Sylvia’s condition that her recipes are now being shared by the Alzheimer’s Society.

Sylvia also began incorporating other health foods, including broccoli, kale, spinach, sunflower seeds, green tea, oats, sweet potatoes and even dark chocolate with a high percentage of cacoa. All of these foods are known to be beneficial for brain health.

Mark and Sylvia devised to diet together after deciding that the medication on it’s own was not enough, they looked into the research showing that rates of dementia are much lower in mediterranean countries and copied a lot of their eating habits.

According to Mirror.co.uk“

Mark, whose brother Brent also died in 1977, said: “When my mum was in hospital she thought it was a hotel – but the worst one she had ever been in.

“She didn’t recognise me and phoned the police as she thought she’d been kidnapped.

“Since my dad and brother died we have always been a very close little family unit, just me and my mum, so for her to not know who I was was devastating.

“We were a double act that went everywhere together. I despaired and never felt so alone as I had no other family to turn to.

“Overnight we went from a happy family to one in crisis.

“When she left hospital, instead of prescribed medication we thought we’d perhaps try alternative treatment.

“In certain countries Alzheimer’s is virtually unheard of because of their diet.

“Everyone knows about fish but there is also blueberries, strawberries, Brazil nuts and walnuts – these are apparently shaped like a brain to give us a sign that they are good for the brain.”

There were also some cognitive exercises that Mark and his mother would do together like jigsaw puzzles crosswords and meeting people in social situations, Sylvia would also exercise by using a pedaling device outfitted for her chair.

Mark said, “It wasn’t an overnight miracle, but after a couple of months she began remembering things like birthdays and was becoming her old self again, more alert, more engaged..

“People think that once you get a diagnosis your life is at an end. You will have good and bad days, but it doesn’t have to be the end. For an 82-year-old she does very well, she looks 10 years younger and if you met her you would not know she had gone through all of this.

“She had to have help with all sorts of things, now she is turning it round. We are living to the older age in this country, but we are not necessarily living healthier.”

The Body’s Ability To Heal Is Greater Than Anyone Has Permitted You To Believe

This story just goes to show how resilient our bodies really are if given the right environment. Most of these types of diseases are often related to diet in the first place so that means that they can indeed be reversed with a proper diet. Sure, some of them are genetic and you might be a carrier of the gene, but that is not a guarantee that it will become active, there are things you can do to minimize the risk. Our health is our greatest wealth. We have to realize that we do have a say in our lives and what our fate is.

We have covered the topic before of how aluminum build up in the brain is directly related to dementia and more specifically Alzheimer’s disease, being able to identify this as a cause is important because recognizing this means we can do our part to limit the exposure and to also detoxify our brains and bodies from this damaging heavy metal.

In an article titled, Strong evidence linking Aluminum to Alzheimer’s, recently published in The Hippocratic Post website, Exley explained that:

“We already know that the aluminium content of brain tissue in late-onset or sporadic Alzheimer’s disease is significantly higher than is found in age-matched controls. So, individuals who develop Alzheimer’s disease in their late sixties and older also accumulate more aluminium in their brain tissue than individuals of the same age without the disease.

Even higher levels of aluminium have been found in the brains of individuals, diagnosed with an early-onset form of sporadic (usually late onset) Alzheimer’s disease, who have experienced an unusually high exposure to aluminium through the environment (e.g. Camelford) or through their workplace. This means that Alzheimer’s disease has a much earlier age of onset, for example, fifties or early sixties, in individuals who have been exposed to unusually high levels of aluminium in their everyday lives.”

His most recent study, published by the Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology in December 2016, titled: Aluminium in brain tissue in familial Alzheimer’s disease, is one of the many studies that he and his team have conducted on the subject of aluminum over the years. However, this study in particular is believed to be of significant value, because it is the first time that scientists have measured the level of aluminum in the brain tissue of individuals diagnosed with familial Alzheimer’s disease. (Alzheimer’s disease or AD is considered to be familial if two or more people in a family suffer from the disease.)

According to their paper, the concentrations of aluminum found in brain tissue donated by individuals who died with a diagnosis of familial AD, was the highest level ever measured in human brain tissue.

Professor Exley wrote:

“We now show that some of the highest levels of aluminium ever measured in human brain tissue are found in individuals who have died with a diagnosis of familial Alzheimer’s disease.

The levels of aluminium in brain tissue from individuals with familial Alzheimer’s disease are similar to those recorded in individuals who died of an aluminium-induced encephalopathy while undergoing renal dialysis.”

He explained that:

“Familial Alzheimer’s disease is an early-onset form of the disease with first symptoms occurring as early as 30 or 40 years of age. It is extremely rare, perhaps 2-3% of all cases of Alzheimer’s disease. Its bases are genetic mutations associated with a protein called amyloid-beta, a protein which has been heavily linked with the cause of all forms of Alzheimer’s disease.

Individuals with familial Alzheimer’s disease produce more amyloid beta and the onset of the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease are much earlier in life.”
The First Step Towards Change Is By Raising Awareness

As more and more awareness grows involving the true causes of these neurodegenerative brain disorders, the more we can do our part to prevent and even treat them and hopefully, eventually eliminate things such as aluminum and other chemicals in our foods to prevent this disease from happening altogether.

Please share this article with anyone you know who knows someone who is suffering from dementia or Alzheimer’s.

This article (82-Year-Old Woman With Dementia Gets Her Memory Back After Changing Her Diet) was originally published on Collective Evolution and syndicated by The Event Chronicle.
———————————-

Apparently the reason Aluminum has been found in the Chemtrails that allegedly don’t exist! “They” are not only trying to kill us, and make us dumb, they want us to succumb to dementia…

BILLIONS OF BQ/M3 CONTAINING HIGH LEVEL LIQUID RADIOACTIVE WASTE FLOWING NON STOP INTO PACIFIC OCEAN, IAEA WANTS TO DUMP ALL TANKS INTO OCEAN


BILLIONS OF BQ/M3 CONTAINING HIGH LEVEL LIQUID RADIOACTIVE WASTE FLOWING NON STOP INTO PACIFIC OCEAN, IAEA WANTS TO DUMP ALL TANKS INTO OCEAN
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/10/the-deep-pacific-ocean-is-brokendead.html

2,300,000 Bq/m3 of all β nuclide detected in drain connected to the Pacific after Typhoon / Highest reading ever
http://fukushima-diary.com/2013/10/2300000-bqm3-of-all-%CE%B2-nuclide-detected-in-drain-connected-to-the-pacific-after-typhoon-highest-reading-ever/

Fukushima – 200 MILLION Gallons Of Highly Radioactive Water Are Pouring Into Pacific Per Day, Or More; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2014/03/fukushima-200-million-gallons-of-highly.html

There is a huge ‘death zone’ radioactive river pouring out of Fukushima and no one is studying the effect of both the initial accident, this 400 tons a day ‘leak’, the huge garbage plume and the effects of both the chemicals, oil, and radiation on ocean creature life, much less the effects of Fukushima on human beings and animals such as seals, whales, polar bears and more.

Ignoring Fukushima will not change what happens. This deadly radiation will have a negative effect. Certainly the nuclear industry does not want anyone researching this, so they are putting their money into promoting new plants, through the IAEA and their favorite politicians.

Fukushima – Growing Alarm, Things Going Downhill Fast; 2 BILLION Bq/Liter Cesium 137 Radioactive Water Going Into Ocean; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/07/fukushima-growing-alarm-things-going.html

MAN MADE RADIATION CONCENTRATES AND ACCUMULATES AS IT MOVES UP THE FOOD CHAIN LONG TERM

Some things are known about how low dose radiation concentrates up the food chain to humans.

2014 Fukushima Pacific Ocean Radiation And How It Concentrates In Mussels, Sea Stars, Chitons, Clams, Oysters, And Fish; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2014/01/fukushima-pacific-ocean-radiation-and.html

As the supposedly diluted and harmless radiation kills or sickens algae, this concentrated radiation moves up the food chain. Some of these contaminated algae move up the food chain and are eaten by fish. These fish are eaten by larger fish. Each step up the food chain concentrates the radiation more and more.

Via CodeShutdown October 8, 2014 “For perspective, 47 Bq/ft^3 average contamination of the top 200 feet of ocean is within a reasonable agreement to tests and models which show up to 30 Bq/m^3 coming to the U.S. coast and this is bio-concentrated by plankton 10,000 to 100,000 times. Bad news for plankton, plankton eaters and the animals and people who eat them! The radioactive plankton sink to the bottom and marine biologists should be testing all of this!

The average annual concentration of 90Sr in water supplies should not exceed 8 pCi/L (0.3 Bq/L)
Authors: N. Casacuberta

Harvested fish will contain 40 times the radioactivity of the sea water. Infectious, cardiovascular and other diseases are bigger contributors to death than cancer;
http://www.npsag.org/upload/reports/00-004/00-004%20Castle%20Meeting%202011%2009%20-%20Paper.pdf

70 TO 90 PERCENT OF ALL HUMAN BODY RADIATION CONTAMINATION GOES INTO BODY AFTER A NUCLEAR ACCIDENT VIA FOOD AND DRINKS, OVER TIME

70 to 90% of all man made radiation comes into and bio accumulates in the human body via food and drinks long term, long after the nuclear accident spill, plume or accident is gone from the news screens.

There are many studies and charts that break down exactly how much of each radioactive element accumulates where and over what period of time, so this subject is not in dispute. Of course, that does not stop the pro nuclear apologists from saying that all of this radiation being ingested is ‘good’ for you, despite it being a heavy metal poison, and then radioactive on top of that.

FEB 2015 UPDATE: 200 Kilometers Of Canadian Pacific Coast Line Dead Zone Devoid of 99% Of All Life, Almost All Tidal Zone Species Missing Entirely
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2014/08/200-kilometers-of-canadian-pacific.html

Something very bad and very deadly is happening in the Pacific oceans. Maybe radiation from Fukushima is just one of many things that are causing the mass die off of just about all life in the Pacific. The supposed experts deny anything really bad is happening and blame ‘viruses’ on the mass die off of many sea life species such as sea stars, seals, and more.

They refuse to test the tissues of dead animals and other sea creatures for radiation or heavy metals such as uranium or plutonium.

WHAT EFFECT DOES FUKUSHIMA RADIATION HAVE ON OXYGEN PRODUCING ALGAE IN OCEANS?

As some percentage of the algae die in massive numbers from radiation effects, they fall to the ocean bottom, potentially causing massive effects on the oxygen content of the bottom layer of ocean, plus a reduction in oxygen production in the top layer of ocean. This issue also deserves study by scientists.

What we breathe is oxygen. 70% of all oxygen produced on the planet comes from algae in the ocean. What if that algae is reduced by 90% or even disappears?

Plutonium And Cesium Bio-Concentrates 26,000 Times In Ocean Algae, Up To 5,570,000 Bq/Kg in Land Algae; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/04/plutonium-and-cesium-bio-concentrates.html

Low Dose Radiation Causes Oxygen Depletion Globally, Kills Oxygen Producing Trees And Algae; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/07/low-dose-radiation-causes-oxygen.html

GLOBAL WARMING EFFECT OF ALL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

Low doses of radiation are known to kill both trees and algae, and oxygen levels are dropping dramatically all around the planet.

Radioactive Carbon 14 From Nuclear Power Plants Causing Deforestation, Disease And Death Of Plants and Trees Globally; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2014/05/carbon-14-emitted-by-nuclear-power.html

Low Dose Radiation Causes Oxygen Depletion Globally, Kills Oxygen Producing Trees And Algae; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/07/low-dose-radiation-causes-oxygen.html

Nuclear Energy As A Direct Cause Of Global Warming; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/12/nuclear-energy-as-direct-cause-of.html

What if the oxygen producing algae is replaced by bacteria that feed on dead algae falling to the bottom of the ocean, which then creates massive amounts of poisonous and deadly hydrogen sulfide, also know as H2S? Reports from some experts are that dead zones in the ocean are increasing all around the world due to this reason.

PLUTONIUM WENT ALL THE WAY AROUND THE WORLD AFTER 3/11 FUKUSHIMA MEGA NUCLEAR DISASTER

On top of all of these things and more, humanity all around the world is just waiting for the 8-10 year time clock to run out, which is when the plutonium and all of the other cancer causing Fukushima nuclear time bombs will be triggered.

Fukushima Plutonium Detected In Lithuania – Toxicity Of Plutonium Scientific Animal Studies; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2013/10/fukushima-plutonium-detected-in.html

Santa Susana Sodium Reactor In Los Angeles California Nuclear Plant Meltdown; Completely Covered Up And Worse Than Three Mile Island; via @AGreenRoad
http://agreenroad.blogspot.com/2012/03/los-angeles-nuclear-plant-meltdown.html

PLUTONIUM AND OTHER MAN MADE ELEMENTS MOVING UP THE FOOD CHAIN

Meanwhile, Fukushima radiation and particularly extra toxic and deadly plutonium is moving up the food chain and through the food web, contaminating, killing, sickening, causing havoc and chaos. Fishermen can no longer catch fish. They are saying catches have dropped off a cliff for many species. Many more are showing up sick, bleeding, full of tumors, different colors, etc.

Source/credit/ Rense at https://youtu.be/8s_yXXDcIwk?t=4m

US Pacific Coast Seaweed Shows With Fukushima Cesium Contamination – October 19th, 2013 – SimplyInfo; New testing done by Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering found Fukushima cesium in US Pacific sea weed. The samples were standardized against a known amount of cesium 137 and cobalt 60. The finding of cesium 134 would indicate this is at least partially from the Fukushima nuclear disaster. “Washington State Pacific coast eel weed sample contained 8.14 Bq/Kg of Cs134 and 8.88 Bq/Kg of Cs137. It also contained 3.7 Bq/Kg of Co60” http://www.fukuleaks.org/web/?p=11613

ENENews: Professor: “It’s really a dead zone” in areas of Fukushima — “Huge impacts… there are no butterflies, no birds… many dramatically fewer species” — “Why does it matter to you (in the U.S.)? The reason is, it’s coming, it is coming”


Finally a little truth in the United States about the Fukushima Disaster!!!

Professor: “It’s really a dead zone” in areas of Fukushima — “Huge impacts… there are no butterflies, no birds… many dramatically fewer species” — “Why does it matter to you (in the U.S.)? The reason is, it’s coming, it is coming” (VIDEO)
Published: October 11th, 2015 at 11:37 pm ET
By ENENews
http://enenews.com/professor-really-dead-zone-areas-fukushima-huge-impacts-butterflies-birds-many-dramatically-fewer-species-matter-reason-coming-coming-video

Dr. Timothy Mousseau, Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, published Oct 3, 2015:

18:30 in — “We don’t see these kind of patches of white feathers anywhere else around the world… Whats really interesting is that 2 years ago we started finding birds in Fukushima with patches of white feathers as well… The frequencies are increasing, its related to the radiation exposure… White spots, they first started noticing these white spots on these cows shortly after the disaster.”

30:30 in — “Fukushima… After 4 years of repeated sampling this is what we find: huge impacts, dramatically fewer birds in the areas of high radiation, many dramatically fewer species of birds as well.”

32:00 in — “Since it was July, I think I’ll… have to go with ‘Silent Summer’ effect… It’s really a dead zone. There are no butterflies, no birds. Very few, and it’s very, very clearly the result of the radiation contaminants.”

34:30 in — (Showing images of the radioactive contamination crossing the Pacific Ocean) “Why does it matter to you?… The reason is… it’s coming — it is coming.”

Watch Mousseau’s presentation here

ENENews: Local News: “Breaking… Alert… leak shuts down US nuclear plant” — Gov’t: Radiation levels ‘above normal’ — ‘Steam plume’ seen in reactor building, workers can’t find where leak is coming from due to safety concerns — Flood warnings issued for area



Local News: “Breaking… Alert… leak shuts down US nuclear plant” — Gov’t: Radiation levels ‘above normal’ — ‘Steam plume’ seen in reactor building, workers can’t find where leak is coming from due to safety concerns — Flood warnings issued for area
Published: July 23rd, 2015 at 7:00 pm ET
By ENENews
ENENews
http://enenews.com/newspaper-breaking-news-alert-leak-shuts-down-nuclear-plant-govt-radiation-levels-above-normal-steam-plume-reported-workers-find-leak-coming-due-safety-concerns-flood-warnings-issued-area

US NRC Event Notification Report, Jul 23, 2015 (emphasis added): Callaway Plant initiated a shutdown required by Technical Specifications (TS)… TS 3.4.13 Condition A was entered due to unidentified RCS [reactor coolant system] leakage being in excess of the 1 gpm TS limit. The leak was indicated by an increase in containment radiation readings… A containment entry identified a steam plume; due to personnel safety the exact location of the leak inside the containment building could not be determined. At this time radiation levels inside [the] containment are stable and slightly above normal. There have been no releases from the plant above normal levels.
http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/event-status/event/en.html#en51253

Power Reactor Event Number: 51253
Facility: CALLAWAY
Region: 4 State: MO
Unit: [1] [ ] [ ]
RX Type: [1] W-4-LP
NRC Notified By: WALTER GRUER
HQ OPS Officer: JEFF HERRERA Notification Date: 07/23/2015
Notification Time: 04:21 [ET]
Event Date: 07/23/2015
Event Time: 01:15 [CDT]
Last Update Date: 07/23/2015
Emergency Class: NON EMERGENCY
10 CFR Section:
50.72(b)(2)(i) – PLANT S/D REQD BY TS
50.72(b)(2)(xi) – OFFSITE NOTIFICATION
Person (Organization):
HEATHER GEPFORD (R4DO)
SCOTT MORRIS (NRR)
JEFFERY GRANT (IRD)

Unit SCRAM Code RX CRIT Initial PWR Initial RX Mode Current PWR Current RX Mode
1 N Y 100 Power Operation 0 Cold Shutdown
Event Text
INITIATION OF PLANT SHUTDOWN DUE TO RCS LEAKAGE

“On July 23, 2015 at 0115 [CDT], Callaway Plant initiated a shutdown required by Technical Specifications (TS). At 2139 [CDT] on July 22, 2015, TS 3.4.13 Condition A was entered due to unidentified RCS leakage being in excess of the 1 gpm TS limit. The leak was indicated by an increase in containment radiation readings, increasing sump levels, and decreasing levels in the Volume Control tank (VCT).

“A containment entry identified a steam plume; due to personnel safety the exact location of the leak inside the containment building could not be determined.

“At this time radiation levels inside [the] containment are stable and slightly above normal. There have been no releases from the plant above normal levels.

“The [NRC] Senior Resident Inspector was notified.”

* * * UPDATE PROVIDED BY ROB STOUGH TO JEFF ROTTON AT 1757 EDT ON 07/23/2015 * * *

“Callaway entered TS 3.4.13 Condition B at 0053 [CDT on July 23, 2015] for the subject leakage since reactor coolant pressure boundary leakage could not be ruled out by visual inspection. The estimated leak rate when the decision was made to shut down the plant was approximately 1.8 gpm. The plant entered Mode 3 at 0600 CDT.

“Additionally, at approximately 1315, it was determined that the duration of the required outage would be greater than three days, thus requiring notification to the Missouri Public Service Commission. This offsite notification is reportable to the NRC [per 10CFR50.72(b)(2)(xi)], and the above table has been updated to reflect this reporting requirement.”

The licensee notified the NRC Resident Inspector.
Notified R4DO (Gepford).

AP, Jul 23, 2015: Missouri Nuclear Plant Shut Down After ‘Non-Emergency’ Leak… Jeff Trammel, a spokesman for St. Louis-based Ameren, called it a “minor steam leak.”… Ameren officials are investigating the cause… it was unclear when the plant would restart… [NRC] inspectors are at the plant.
http://abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory/missouri-nuclear-plant-shut-emergency-leak-32641600

Missouri Times, Jul 23, 2015: Unplanned Shutdown & Elevated Radioactive Levels at Ameren Missouri’s Callaway 1 Nuclear Reactor Containment Building… Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued an event notice for the unplanned shutdown of the Callaway 1 nuclear reactor… The NRC notes that radiation is above normal in the containment building.
http://themissouritimes.com/20103/unplanned-shutdown-elevated-radioactive-levels-at-ameren-missouris-callaway-1-nuclear-reactor-containment-building/

Jefferson City News Tribune, Jul 23, 2015 at 2:26p: Alert – Steam leak shuts down Callaway…

Jefferson City News Tribune, Jul 23, 2015: Breaking News – Steam leak shuts down Callaway Plant… Company officials are trying to determine the cause of the problem, which they said “has been contained.”
https://archive.is/iKgdW

ABC 17, Jul 23, 2015 — Callaway FLOOD WARNING: Issued at: 9:52 am CDT on July 23, 2015, expires at: 4:00 AM CDT on July 26, 2015. The Flood Warning continues for the Missouri River near Chamois until Friday afternoon. At 7:00 am Thursday the stage was 19.5 feet. Flood stage is 17.0 feet. Minor flooding is occurring.
http://www.abc17news.com/weather/severe-weather/17736360?county=callaway_mo

Previous event at Callaway: Emergency declared at US nuke plant: Fire shuts down reactor — “Reports of black smoke” — Company says no radiation release “above normal operating limits”

BY: ENENews: “Gundersen: ‘Lung cancers to start increasing in Pacific Northwest'” “Authorities knew about hot particles and didn’t warn public; Could have worn air masks, instead it’s stuck in their lungs; Helicopters did secret survey along coast”


ENENews:  http://enenews.com/nuclear-professor-fukushima-really-major-event-washington-radioactive-aerosols-100000-times-above-normal-thought-wow-bigger-accident-hearing-audio?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+ENENews+%28Energy+News%29&utm_content=FeedBurner

US Nuclear Professor: Fukushima “a really major event here”, Washington had radioactive aerosols 100,000 times normal; “Far more bigger accident than we’re hearing” — Model shows West Coast completely blacked out due to particles covering area — Gundersen: Lung cancers to start increasing in Pacific Northwest

Published: November 16th, 2014 at 12:45 pm ET

By ENENews

Seattle Post-Intelligencer’s “Big Science Blog” by Jake Ellison, Nov. 13, 2014 (emphasis added): Tiny amount of Fukushima radiation reaches West Coast; does it worry you? A water sample taken in August from about 100 miles west of Eureka, California, has been found to contain a small amount of radiation from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear plant disaster… Basically, scientists say it’s nothing more than a curiosity or confirmation of models… but the rumors and fears surrounding radiation contamination are hard to dampen. This is the second time radiation from Japan has shown up on our shores. In March [2014], we reported: “A bit of cesium-134… has been detected in a soil sample taken from the beach… in British Columbia”

Some may recall that radioactive material from Japan has shown up on the shores of the Pacific Northwest even before March 2014 — actually about 3 years before:
Particles North America
The University of Texas at Austin — Cockrell School of Engineering: The amount of radiation released during the Fukushima nuclear disaster was so great that the level of atmospheric radioactive aerosols in Washington state was 10,000 to 100,000 times greater than normal levels… “I think the conclusion was that this was a really major event here,” said Cockrell School of Engineering Associate Professor Steven Biegalski of the Fukushima disaster… Biegalski was on a faculty research assignment at [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory] in Richland, Wash… “As the measurements came in sooner and at higher concentrations than we initially expected, we quickly came to the conclusion that there were some major core melts at those facilities,” Biegalski said. “I remember being in the lab thinking, ‘Wow, if this is all true we have a far more bigger accident than what we’re hearing right now.”

Washington State Department of Health: Releases from… Fukushima showed that a radiological event can happen anywhere, anytime, and affect conditions thousands of miles from the source.

Nuclear expert Arnie Gundersen interviewed by Alex Smith of RadioEcoshock, Oct. 29, 2014 (at 21:30 in): “We found gardens in Vancouver that had… a clear signature of Fukushima radiation. We’ve seen that as far north as a little bit north of Vancouver, all the way down to Portland, Oregon… So clearly the West Coast was nailed.”

Nuclear expert Arnie Gundersen interviewed by Libbe HaLevy of Nuclear Hotseat, Nov. 12, 2014 (at 44:30 in): “I would expect that as a result of these hot particles that have blown all over Japan and Seattle and Vancouver and Portland… I would expect and increase in lung cancer.”
img 483 Dec 24 18 28 600x500

Nuclear Hotseat interview here | Radio Ecoshock interview here

Published: November 16th, 2014 at 12:45 pm ET
By ENENews

New model shows U.S. was hit by Fukushima cloud that dispersed little over Pacific — Gundersen: Authorities knew about hot particles and didn’t warn public; Could have worn air masks, instead it’s stuck in their lungs; Helicopters did secret survey along coast (PHOTO & AUDIO) December 24, 2013
Gov’t model shows airborne radioactive plume covering entire west coast of US & Canada on Mar 22, 2011… 10 times more radioactive than plume coming from Fukushima plant on same day — Radiation levels in some plumes had no discernible decrease after crossing Pacific (VIDEO) April 8, 2014
Kaltofen shows effect of plutonium on lung tissue: See single particle cause fibrotic nodule in lung — Eases fears on West Coast (VIDEO) May 9, 2012
Gundersen: When the radioactive plume hits West Coast in a few months “it’s not like it’s going to end” — Fukushima still pumping contamination into Pacific Ocean 1,000 days after disaster began (AUDIO) December 7, 2013
TV: “Mysterious die off of young salmon” in Pacific Northwest — “Healthy… and then they die” heading out to sea — “Far less plankton than normal… There are too many questions” — Researchers now testing for plankton and Fukushima contamination off West Coast (VIDEO) August 6, 2014
November 16th, 2014 | Category: Audio/Video Clips, Canada, Seattle, US, West Coast
Massive radiation spike at Fukushima: 40,000% increase below ground between Units 1 & 2 this month — Order of magnitude above record high set last year »

They Have Always Said That When the Oceans Die, We Are Not Far Behind! Be Safe.


TV: “This is really kind of scary… a grim reality” for West Coast — Alarm as baby whales keep dying; Since 2011 none have survived over a year — Biologist: We see them pregnant for weeks, then no longer pregnant — NOAA: “Not what we’re used to… Incredibly poor condition… Skeleton with skin” (VIDEO)
Published: November 5th, 2014 at 2:07 am ET
By ENENews
http://enenews.com/tv-really-kind-scary-grim-reality-west-coast-orcas-alarm-babies-keep-dying-2011-survived-year-biologists-whales-pregnant-weeks-theyre-longer-pregnant-video

King 5 News (Seattle), Oct. 21, 2014: Baby orca death triggers alarm; The recent loss… is sounding off alarms since its been years since a baby orca has survived — “Researchers say there is no hope for a missing baby orca… The baby — which was born just last month — is nowhere in sight… The loss of yet another baby orca… A grim reality is taking shape… This is really kind of scary, because it’s been years since one of these little guys has survived… Babies are not surviving, and [biologist Ken Balcomb] says some whales appear pregnant for weeks, only to be seen later no longer pregnant… Some scientists believe the orcas… could be poisoning their own babies with toxic mother’s milk.”
orca baby

King 5: No orca births were recorded last year and it’s been 3 years since a baby… survived more than a year
The Journal: [The mother’s] 2nd offspring [also] died in early 2012
Post Intelligencer: The loss of her 2nd baby must be especially traumatic
Reuters: The number of orcas in ocean waters off the Pacific NW [are at] some of their lowest levels in history
The Journal: [Orca] numbers continue to plummet… Chinook [salmon], the primary source of prey of the resident whales, [are at] historic lows. The population… is at a 30-year low… 30 years ago, there were anywhere between 3 to 9 babies each year
AP: Two other whales are presumed dead after disappearing earlier this year
skinny orca
Interview with John Durban, NOAA biologist, Oct 7, 2014: The very skinny one, that is not what we’re used to seeing killer whales look like… You can see the skull… It’s in incredibly poor condition… While we were [taking photos] he disappeared and stopped swimming with his brother, and has almost certainly passed away… It’s a skeleton with skin… Another very skinny whale… she’s very slender… a depression behind the head… You can see the shape of her skeleton.

Ken Buesseler, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Jun 5, 2014 (53:00 in): I’m not sampling or analyzing [whales or other marine mammals for Fukushima radionuclides]… Agencies are doing this in a very, I’d say [laughs] ‘limited’ way… We should be making these measurements, we owe it to everyone… If something is happening, can we attribute it to one source of contaminants or another? Without measurements we’ll never know, so the concern will always be there… We should be monitoring… whales and seals… I haven’t seen any data that suggests it’s of concern, again that’s partly because I’ve not seen a lot of data… We need measurements.

Published: November 5th, 2014 at 2:07 am ET
By ENENews
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Experts: “Really an off year” — Pelicans starving in Pacific Northwest since 2011, killing baby birds for food — Breeding success “really poor” since 2011 — “I believe pelicans are responding to large scale changes” — “Sardine crash” persists in Pacific since decline in 2011 December 22, 2013
Newspaper: Unprecedented declines in Alaska king salmon… related to impact from Fukushima? No comment, says NOAA biologist — Record low numbers seen in major fishery on Canada’s west coast, “alarming decrease” December 29, 2013
TV: Problems with killer whales local to West Coast — Only baby born in 2013 died — Just two born in 2012 — Depleted fish supply blamed January 22, 2014
Gov’t Investigator: Acute hemorrhaging found in dead owls along west coast — Mortality event began 8 months after Fukushima explosions — “In very poor condition… badly emaciated” when arriving in Pacific Northwest from Arctic May 3, 2014
Killer whales dying along Pacific coast — “Very sick, emaciated” — Population at lowest level in decades — Steep decline began after 2011 — No babies born in past 2 years — Alarming changes in behavior observed; Social structure is ‘splintering’ (PHOTO) September 5, 2014